Archive for the 'Events' Category

AO On Site – New York: Americans for the Arts 2011 National Arts Awards at Cipriani 42nd Street, October 17, 2011

Tuesday, October 18th, 2011

Jenny Holzer accepts the Outstanding Contributions to the Arts Award.  All photos on site for Art Observed by Nicholas Wirth.

Americans for the Arts held their 2011 National Arts Awards at the grand Cipriani 42nd Street venue on Monday night, honoring “artists and art leaders who exhibit exemplary national leadership and whose work demonstrates extraordinary artistic achievement.” Awards were bestowed upon artists Frank Stella and Jenny Holzer, as well as Beverley Taylor Sorenson, President Obama’s Committee on the Arts and the Humanities, Gabourey Sidibe, and Wells Fargo & Company.  The annual gala dinner named Sol Lewitt the featured artist, showcasing his work throughout the space, while guests such as Richard Phillips, Will Cotton, and Jeff Koons mingled in black-tie.

More photos after the jump…

Go See – Los Angeles: Pacific Standard Time, October 2011 through March 2012

Tuesday, October 11th, 2011

Still from PST video with John Baldessari and Jason Schwartzman. Via CalArts.

Began by the Getty Foundation nearly ten years ago, the Pacific Standard Time (PST) initiative has done well, to say the least, with the most recent issue of Artforum almost completely devoted to art in L.A. While PST-related programming began in early September, the weekend of October 1st was the highly anticipated official “opening weekend,” with sixteen exhibitions opening across the city.

More text and images after the jump…

AO On Site Photoset – New York: Whitney Studio Party, Wednesday, October 5, 2011

Thursday, October 6th, 2011

Photos for Art Observed on site by Samuel Sveen.

Art Observed was on site for the Whitney Studio Party, the after-party of the Whitney Museum‘s annual gala. In honor of Calvin Tomkins—the New Yorker writer and profiler of 95 artists—dinner was followed by a dance party down the hall in the larger warehouse space at Pier 57 on the west side. As ?uestlove spun all night, guests danced and drank among various socialites and artists, including Nate Lowman and Ryan McNamara.


More photos after the jump…

AO On Site Photoset with Video – New York: Bring To Light | Nuit Blanche New York 2011, Greenpoint, Brooklyn, October 1st, 2011

Tuesday, October 4th, 2011

Video on site for Art Observed by Samuel Sveen.

A glowing sky over Greenpoint in Brooklyn drew several thousand art and light enthusiasts for the Bring To Light | Nuit Blanche New York 2011 light festival, a one-night event on October 1st. Wandering a playground and weaving through dark warehouse alleys, even out onto the India Street Pier, visitors could see over 50 installations—depending on how hard they looked—including sculptures, light projections, interactive installations, and live music and performances by both established and emerging artists. ‘Nuit Blanche’ translates to ‘white night’ or ‘all-nighter,’ a European tradition turned art festival ten years ago in Paris. New York’s second annual installment was joined by not only Paris, but also Brussels and Toronto in a simultaneous night of light, an effort to “re-imagine public space and civic life.”

Photo set after the jump…

AO On Site Photoset – New York: RxArt’s Annual Benefit 2011, Thursday, September 22nd, 2011

Tuesday, September 27th, 2011

Rob Pruitt’s graffiti wall of zebras. All photos on site for Art Observed by Giffen Ott.

Art Observed was on site again this year for the RxArt + Chanel Beauté 11th Annual PARTY Benefit. Imbibing works by contemporary artists such as Nate Lowman (who’s Reverse Snowman Holding His Own Head was the highest going piece, at $24,000) and Dan Colen, Miranda July, and Yoko Ono, guests bid via silent auction, the proceeds going toward a good cause. According to their website, “RxArt is a non-profit organization dedicated to placing original fine art in patient, procedure and examination rooms of healthcare facilities. Our mission is to improve otherwise sterile environments through contemporary art, promote healing, and inspire hope in patients, families and staff.” Held at the Highline Stages in Chelsea, party-goers included artists KAWS, Terry Richardson, Aurel Schmidt, and José Parlá, among other celebrities and organizers such as Bill Powers and Jen Brill.

More images after the jump… (more…)

AO On Site Photoset With Video – New York: MoMA PS1 Summer ‘Warm Up’ Finale, Saturday, September 10, 2011

Sunday, September 11th, 2011

Teengirl Fantasy at MoMA PS1 Warm Up. All photos for Art Observed by Joachim Azoulay.

For the summer’s final ‘Warm Up’ at MoMA PS1, the all-afternoon courtyard party kept entertained by music from Kenny Dope, Tanlines, Syd tha Kyd, Teengirl Fantasy, and Physical Therapy. Some of the acts had been rescheduled from their earlier performances slated for August 27th, due to Hurricane Irene. Aside from dancing, art enthusiasts enjoyed drinks throughout the space, admiring a room of mirrors or playing ping pong. And while the anticipated 9/11 exhibition was off limits, the first floor shown the works of Francis Alÿs: A Story of Deception.

More photos after the jump…


Go See – New York: "Alternative Histories" at Exit Art through November 24, 2010

Saturday, October 30th, 2010

Exit Art Founders Papo Colo and Jeanette Ingberman at Exit Art, 578 Broadway, Manhattan, 1986. Courtesy of Exit Art

Exit Art’s Alternative Histories attempts to assess the inception and development of “alternative” art spaces in New York since the 1960s. The show presents various forms of documentary and archival material drawn from more than 130 organizations and collective experiences which have, from this establishment’s perspective, shaped  the cultural topography of the city over the past 50 years, informing and inspiring generations of artists and practitioners.

All installation views courtesy Exit Art


AO Auction Preview – New York: White Columns Benefit Exhibition and Auction this Saturday, May 15th at White Columns

Thursday, May 13th, 2010

Dirty Brian, Nigel Cooke (2010) Retail value: $2,500 – 3,500+ Opening bid: $2,000

This Saturday, May 15, New York’s oldest alternative and non-profit art space, White Columns, will host a special reception featuring a live auction.  Silent bidding has already begun on many of the works that are currently on view at the gallery on West 13th Street, New York – and a select group of works are to be sold at the live auction, conducted by White Columns director Matthew Higgs. White Columns wanted the works in the auction to be viewed as a curated exhibition, and indeed, the works have been on view for the past two weeks.  Last Saturday White Columns hosted a preview breakfast as part of New York Gallery Week.  Director Matthew Higgs explains, “we think it is important that the donated works have a chance to be seen by a wide public, and seen within the context of an exhibition…as opposed to the works being sold at a one-night only, ticketed event.”

Fallen Angels – Julie London, David Byrne (2010) Retail value: $1,000+ Opening bid: $500

Now entering their fifth decade of operation, White Columns has supported and launched the careers of literally thousands of artists.  Founded in 1970 by Jeffrey Lew and Gordon Matta-Clark, the space is one of the first artist-run organizations  intended to promote artistic communal solidarity. Many of the 75 artists who have contributed works have a historic, or more recent, connection to the organization – emphasizing an inter-generational ‘peer’ philanthropy so inherent to not-for-profit gallery culture. Among the artists who donated works are Peter Doig, Maurizio Cattelan, David Byrne and many others.  Bidders should have the opportunity to acquire choice works at a variety of price ranges. The top lot of the live auction is Mary Heilmann’s For Malcolm – a tribute to the recently deceased London-born impresario Malcolm McLaren, the work is one of a number of music-inspired works that feature in both the silent and live auctions.

As a special feature of the 2010 benfit, Higgs invited more than 30 artists to create a new work that incorporates an existing record sleeve, or to create a work that uses a record sleeve as its point of departure.  in this section include: Nigel Cooke, Brendan Fowler, Wade Guyton, Jessica Jackson Hutchins, Jutta Koether, Josephine Meckseper, Dave Muller, David Noonan, Raymond Pettibon, Jack Pierson, Richard Phillips, Cheyney Thompson, Kelley Walker, among others.

Musicians of the British Empire, Peter Doig (2010) Retail value: $25,000+ Opening bid: $12,500

More images and lot info after the jump…..

AO Onsite Auction/Event Review: The 16th Annual Watermill Summer Benefit, Watermill, New York. Saturday July 25, 2009

Wednesday, July 29th, 2009

Terence Koh Simon De Pury Watermill Benefit Hamptons
Terence Koh and Simon De Pury at the 16th Watermill Summer Benefit. Photo by Patrick McMullan

Robert Wilson greeted his guests as they arrived at the 16th Annual Watermill Summer Benefit- an event he choreographs every summer in order to raise funds for the artistic community to which he is the director. The evening included a silent auction, a live auction hosted by Simon de Pury – Chairman of Philips de Pury auction house, over 10 art installations interpreting this years theme “Inferno,” dinner,  theater performances of various genres and attendance by many from the worlds of art, fashion and music.

Related Links:
Hot as Hell At Watermill
Fire Starters at Watermill Benefit [WWD Lifestyle]
Isabella Rossellini shows for Water Mill Benefit [Newsday]
Flaming Creatures [ArtForum]
The 16th Annual Watermill Summer Benefit Hot As An “Inferno” [Hamptons]
About Watermill Center [Watermill Center]
The 16th Annual Watermill Summer Auction and Benefit [Art Observed]

16th Annual Watermill Summer Benefit and Auction
Attendees walk the trails behind the 16th Annual Watermill Summer Benefit and Auction at the Hamptons, all photos by Art Observed unless noted

More text and pictures after the jump…


AO Auction/Event Preview -Watermill, New York: The 16th Annual Watermill Summer Auction and Benefit July 25, 2009

Thursday, July 23rd, 2009

Inferno Watermill Hamptons Annual Summer Benefit
Manaus, Christophe Schlingensief. Inferno, this year’s theme of the 16th Annual Watermill Summer Benefit. Via Hamptons

The Byrd Hoffman Watermill Foundation’s sixteenth Annual Summer Benefit will take place on July 25th in the Hamptons.  Robert Wilson, its Artistic Director, envisages an event that will include various installations, theatrical performances and auctions all framed by this year’s theme- Inferno.  An auction in support of artistic programming at the Watermill Center conducted by Simon de Pury, Chairman of Phillips de Pury auction house, will certainly be one of the highlights of the evening.

Related Links:
Inferno: The Sixteenth Annual Watermill Summer Benefit [Artdaily]
Sixteenth Annual Watermill Summer Benefit [The Watermill Center]
About Watermill [the Watermill Center]
16th Annual Watermill Center Benefit [Artinfo]
Summer Is a-Kooning In: We Preview Watermill Benefit Goodies!
Simon de Pury [Bigthink]
Welcome to Watermill – a review of last year’s (2008) Watermill Benefit [BIZBASH]

Peyton Julian, Elizabeth Peyton. At the Annual Watermill Benefit this year
Julian, Elizabeth Peyton. At the Annual Watermill Benefit this year. Via Watermill Center

More pictures and text after the jump… (more…)


Sunday, May 17th, 2009

Beatriz Milhanes at Fondation Cartier via WSJ

For her exhibition at the Fondation Cartier, Brazilian born artist Beatriz Milhanes presents a focused selection of large format acrylic paintings, chosen from her work of the past decade, as well as a monumental collage created especially for the show.  She was also commissioned to produce a monumental installation of the building’s glass facades.  Beatriz Milhanes emerged on the Brazilian art scene in the mid-1980s.  Her vibrant and colorful paintings intertwine colonial baroque, high modernism, and popular Brazilian art.  Her bold and bright installations play with natural light to compliment the architecture of Jean Nouvel and the surrounding garden.

Beatriz Milhanes, Fondation Cartier pour l’art contemporain April 4th-June 21st [ArtSlant]
Beatriz Milhanes, Fondation Cartier
Events, Paris, Beatriz Milhanes
Pop Goes Paris


Armory Arts Week is on, March 4-8, 2009

Wednesday, March 4th, 2009

Gary Simmons-Untitled (Sabatini)-2009
Gary Simmons, “Untitled (Sabatini)” (2009) via ARTINFO

Armory Arts Week is on, running March 4th (press preview) through Sunday the 8th on Piers 92 & 94 (Twelfth Avenue at 55th Street). One of the world’s leading art fairs devoted exclusively to contemporary art since its introduction in 1999, The Armory Show – The International Fair of New Art (on Pier 94) is the main draw inviting visitors to both purchase and immerse themselves in the art of our times. Concurrently, The Armory Show – Modern (on Pier 92) is a new section dedicated to international dealers specializing in historically significant Modern and contemporary art.

In addition to the shows, an array of extended exhibitions and special programs are available to the public, as well as panel discussions, guided tours, open studios, visits to collectors’ homes, performances, and separate receptions hosted by a variety of cultural officials.

This year, Armory Week extends beyond the piers with Volta NY, an invitational show for emerging artists, as well as Satellite Fairs, including Pulse, Red Dot, Scope New York, the Bridge Art Fair, and the Art Now Fair.

For a map of Armory Week, click here.

Opening Hours:
Thursday, March 5 – Saturday, March 7 Noon to 8 pm
Sunday, March 8 Noon to 7 pm

News links:
Armory art fair draws interest despite recession [Crain’s New York Business]
Editor’s Picks: Armory Show Preview [ARTINFO]
The AFC Guide to Art Fair Week Events [Art Fag City]
‘Meat Head’ Bronze at $250,000 Highlights Armory Show in N.Y. [Bloomberg]
Interview with Featured Artist: Machiko Edmondson [Art Comments]

In action to recover for damage to printing machinery while on high seas between England and United States under nonnegotiable or “straight” bill of lading, English Court of Appeal (Civil Division) applies English law and determines that such bill came within U. K’s Carriage of Goods by Sea Act of 1971.

International Law Update June 1, 2003 On August 25, 1924, the maritime nations meeting in Brussels agreed upon the International Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules of Law relating to Bills of Lading for the Carriage of Goods by Sea [51 Stat. 233; T.S. 931; 2 Bevans 430; 120 L.N.T.S. 155]. The parties intended it to regulate the minimum terms to govern international shipping contracts for carrying goods.

With some amendments, the Convention arose out of a set of standard rules negotiated at The Hague in 1922 for inclusion into bills of lading by contract. Coming to be called “the Hague Rules,” they applied only to contracts of carriage “covered by a bill of lading or any similar document of title.” Almost 80 years later, the import of that phrase remains surprisingly controversial.

“The effect of a negotiable bill of lading has been famously described by Bowen L.J. in Sanders v. Maclean (1883) 11 Q.B.D. 327 at 341 in this passage: ‘A cargo at sea while in the hands of the carrier is necessarily incapable of physical delivery. During this period of transit and voyage, the bill of lading by the law merchant is universally recognised as its symbol; and the indorsement and delivery of the bill of lading operates as a symbolical delivery of the cargo.” “Property in the goods passes by such indorsement and delivery of the bill of lading, whenever it is the intention of the parties that the property should pass, just as under similar circumstances the property would pass by an actual delivery of the goods … It is a key which in the hands of a rightful owner is intended to unlock the door of the warehouse, floating or fixed, in which the goods may chance to be.'” [ 1] In the present case, the shipper, Coniston International Machinery Ltd., of Liverpool (Coniston), consigned four containers of printing machinery to the claimant, J. I. MacWilliam Company Inc., of Boston, Massachusetts (MacWilliam). Vessels owned by, or demise chartered to, the defendant, Mediterranean Shipping Co. S.A., of Geneva (MSC), were to transport the machinery. The bill of lading issued by the defendant MSC to Coniston at Durban in December 1989 named MacWilliam as the consignee and declared that the bill was non-negotiable. That is, it was a “straight” bill of lading, so that delivery of the goods (rather than a mere endorsement of the bill) was usually required to transfer the goods. go to site bill of lading

One of defendant’s vessels, The Rosemary, carried the goods uneventfully from Durban, South Africa to Felixstowe, England. There they were discharged and later reshipped to their final destination in the United States aboard defendant’s vessel, The Rafaela S. En route across the Atlantic, however, the machinery was badly damaged and MacWilliam filed arbitration proceedings in England.

At arbitration, the issue arose as to whether the U. K.’s Carriage of Goods By Sea Act of 1971 (1971 Act) applied or its U.S. counterpart. By Section 1(3), the 1971 Act has the force of law “where the port of shipment is a port in the United Kingdom.” This led to the question of whether one contract of carriage or two governed the shipment from South Africa to Boston. If the 1971 Act did apply, then Section 1(4) (derived from art I(b) of the Hague Rules) had to be satisfied. It declares that the contract had to “expressly or by implication [provide] for the issue of a bill of lading or any similar document of title.” This led to the further question as to whether a “straight” bill of lading constituted a “bill of lading or any similar document of title” under the 1971 Act. The arbitrators held that a single contract of carriage governed the shipment and that, in any event, a straight bill of lading was not a “bill of lading” under the Act.

With leave, the claimant next appealed to the Commercial Court. There the judge concluded, contrary to the arbitrators, that there had been two separate contracts. On the other hand, the judge did uphold the arbitrators’ ruling that a straight bill was not a statutory “bill of lading,” and dismissed the appeal.

The claimant then appealed, urging that a straight bill of lading qualified as a “bill of lading” within Section 1(4) of the 1971 Act, and also within Article I(b) of the Hague Rules. The English Court of Appeal (Civil Division) allows the appeal and reverses the Commercial Court.

The Court first outlines the issues presented. “The business issue between the parties is whether the contract of carriage contained in or evidenced by the bill of lading prescribed a package limitation under the Hague Rules, the Hague-Visby Rules, or the U.S. Carriage of Goods by Sea Act of 1936 (USCOGSA).

The Hague-Visby Rules are an amended version of the Hague Rules, introduced by the Protocol signed at Brussels on 23 February 1968. It contains a more liberal package limitation. On the other hand, USCOGSA reflects the earlier limitation regime of the Hague Rules and would limit any recovery to US$500 per package.

Secondly, the appellate court decides whether the parties were acting under one shipping contract or two. “[The ‘through bill of lading’] clause, when read together with the relevant boxes on the front of the bill, does not provide for a single contract of carriage but for two separate contracts, one from Durban to Felixstowe and the other from Felixstowe to Boston.” “It may be true that MSC was entitled to arrange that second contract to be with itself, but that should not disguise the fact that such an arrangement must be viewed in exactly the same light as a new contract arranged through MSC’s agency with a different carrier. If the latter would be a separate contract with a separate port of shipment, then so must be the former arrangement.” “If it arranged on-carriage with itself, then there would be a single contract for a voyage from Durban to Boston, with transshipment at Felixstowe, and U.S. law and jurisdiction would apply under clause 2 and [the U.S.’s Carriage of Goods by Sea Act of 1936 (USCOGSA)] would apply under the penultimate sentence of clause 1.” “If on the other hand, MSC arranged on-carriage with another carrier, then the contract would only be for shipment from Durban to Felixstowe, not to the U.S., and London arbitration and English law would apply under clause 2, and there would be a port of shipment within the U.K. which, subject to the straight bill of lading issue, would also invoke the compulsory regime of the 1971 Act.” [ 21] In the Court of Appeal’s view, the contract that governed the carriage of the machinery from Durban to England was distinct from the agreement that controlled the shipment from England to the U.S. This means that there had been a “port of shipment” within England so that the lower court had correctly reasoned that the [English] Act applied.

Thirdly, the Court tackles the nature and effect of this hybrid bill of lading. It first holds that a straight bill of lading did constitute a “bill of lading” under the Hague Rules. These Rules dealt with the content of a carriage contract where the contract embodied in a bill of lading might turn out to affect the rights of a third party.

“It seems to me to be plain as a matter of common-sense but also on a review of the material cited in this judgment, that, in this connection, a named consignee under a straight bill of lading, unless he is the same person as the shipper, is as much a third party as a named consignee under a classic bill.” [ 136] In practical usage, the Court notes, the straight bill serves (like a “classic” bill) as a document against which payment was demanded and the transfer of which brought about a transfer of property interests in the cargo. The shipper, along with his bankers and insurers, desire the same protection as the shipper has under a classic bill.” “In addition the consignee itself and its insurers needed to have rights against the carrier in case of misadventure. The parties typically write the straight bill on the same form as an otherwise classic bill and mandate production of the bill on delivery of the goods. Moreover, a straight bill is in principle, function and form quite a bit closer to a classic negotiable bill than to a non-negotiable receipt. Article VI of the Rules seems to look upon the latter as “something far more exotic.” [ 139] A straight bill of lading also constitutes a document of title since it has to be produced in order to perfect delivery. Even without express language that requires production of a particular straight bill to obtain delivery, it is in principle a document of title. in our site bill of lading

“Whatever the history of the phrase in English common or statutory law may be, I see no reason why a document which has to be produced to obtain possession of the goods should not be regarded, in an international convention, as a document of title. It is so regarded by the courts of France, Holland and Singapore.” [ 143] As a final note, the lead opinion voices a complaint. “It seems to me that the use of these hybrid forms of bill of lading is an unfortunate development and has spawned litigation in recent years in an area which, for the previous century or so, has not caused any real difficulty. Carriers should not use bill of lading forms if what they want to invite shippers to do is to enter into sea waybill type contracts.” “It may be true that ultimately it is up to shippers to ensure that the boxes in these hybrid forms are filled up in the way that best suits themselves; but in practice I suspect that serendipity often prevails. In any event, these forms invite error and litigation, which is best avoided by a simple rule.” [ 146] Citation: J. I. MacWilliam, Co., Inc. v. Mediterranean Shipping Co., S.A., “The Rafaela S,” [2003] E.W.C.A. Civ. 556, [2003] All E.R. (D) 289 ( April 16) (Approved judgment).

Newslinks for Monday, December 22nd, 2008

Monday, December 22nd, 2008

The Museo Universitario de Arte Contemporáneo in Mexico City via

Mexico City opens a new 3,300 sq. m, $20 million contemporary art museum [TheArtNewspaper]
Sculptor Richard Serra awarded the Order of Arts and Letters of Spain
A Sotheby’s video offers refreshing transparency into its process in the current environment [Sotheby’s]
In more video, Takashi Murakami on money and art, New York vs. Tokyo and more [TMagazine – The Moment]
And finally, video of Damien Hirst on his Statuephilia installation in London


Tom Sachs opens his online store [ via supertouch]
Gallerist/web presence Edward Winkleman announces his book ‘How to Start and Run a Commercial Art Gallery’ [edwardwinkleman]
The Louvre finds 3 possible Leonardo Da Vinci drawings on the back of his painting [Bloomberg]

Gallerist Mellissa Bent, artist Hope Atherton and artist Georgia Sagri make the scene at Rivington Arms via ArtForum

On the closing of Lower East Side Gallery Rivington Arms [ArtForum] more on this here [NYObserver]
Similarly, the International Asian Art Fair is canceled
[ArtInfo] Galerie Emmanuel Perrotin Miami, opened in 2005, will also close [ArtLurker]

The installation entitled ‘Moscow on the Move’ via the Guardian

Dasha Zhukova and the Moscow Garage organize a 17-artist public video installation which includes work by Doug Aitken, Fischli and Weiss and Pippilotti Rist [GuardianUK]

AO Auction Preview: Sotheby’s London, Old Master Paintings, Wednesday July 9

Tuesday, July 8th, 2008

Landscape at Evening with Travellers and a Hunter Near Classical Ruins, Pierre Patel the Elder (circa 1640) via Sotheby’s

Sotheby’s has a forthcoming sale of Old Master Paintings, to be held in London at its New Bond St. location, on Wednesday, July 9th. The sale’s highlights include works from Pompeo Batoni, Jan Brueghel the Elder, Lucas Cranach the Elder, Carlo Crivelli, Frans Hals, Guido Reni, Sir Peter Paul Rubens, David Teniers the Younger, Aert van der Neer, Gaspar van Wittel (Vanvitelli) and a number of other exemplary European painters of this time.

It should also be noted that there will be ten paintings featured in the July 9th sale which come from the esteemed private collection of the late Dr. Gustav Rau, a 20th century philanthropist and collector of works from artists such as Pierre Patel the Elder, whose piece, Landscape at Evening with Travellers and a Hunter Near Classical Ruins, is estimated to fetch $800,000-$1,200,000 (Pictured above).

London Old Master Paintings Evening Sale [Sotheby’s]
Masters and Surprises In London, Old Masters Set To Be Sold [NYSun]


AO On Site: Neon Neon: Bright Lights at the Armory 2008

Saturday, March 29th, 2008

Martin Creed; Brass & Chrome in front; Multi-Colored Neon in back; Hauser & Wirth

Commentary and Photos by Faith-Ann Young

In the 1950s, neon represented the light of the American Dream- a technological innovation that emblazoned a company or brands’ success and riches into the starry skies. In the 1980’s art world, neon signs were omnipresent, signifying cool kitsch. At this year’s Armory Show in NYC, neon was back and bold- flashing flamboyantly in at least seventeen exhibitions- whether in traditional form or L.E.D. However today’s neon, rather than to flaunt the obvious (like typical commercial signage), most artists employed these glow rays to reveal the hidden, secret or censored. (more…)