The Biennale’s Central Pavilion in the Giardini. Image by Giulio Squillacciotti, courtesy La Biennale di Venezia.
Art Observed will be on site this week for the 54th Venice Biennale. Since its creation in 1895, the festival has filled the city every two years with artists, curators, critics, and curious onlookers. The exhibition is housed over 50,000 square meters of exhibition space in the historical pavilions in the Giardini, and 38,000 square meters in the Arsenale, as well as other numerous locations around the city. The preview runs June 1st through 3rd (a preview program is available for download) and the Biennale opens to the public on June 4th, running through November 27th, 2011.
Expect updates and photo sets throughout the week, as well as on our Twitter.
Director of the 54th Biennale di Venezia, Paolo Baratta, and Artistic Director Bice Curiger. Photo by Giorgio Zucchiatti, courtesy Fondazione la Biennale di Venezia.
More images, text, and extended coverage including national pavilions and collateral events after the jump…
Grand Canal, Venice. Image courtesy Flickr.
There are a record 89 exhibiting countries in this year’s lineup, expanding from 2009’s list of 77. The full list of national participations reveals that many countries will be participating for the first time (Andorra, Saudi Arabia, Bangladesh, Haiti) while others will be participating after a long period of absence (India, Congo, Iraq, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Costa Rica, and Cuba). Since the initial announcement from La Biennale, Bahrain and Lebanon have withdrawn.
This year’s artistic director is Swiss curator Bice Curiger. An art historian, critic and curator, Curiger is the founder and editor-in-chief of “Parkett” magazine and is the publishing director of “Tate etc”. Since 1993, she has been curator at the Zurich Kunsthaus. As artistic director of the 2011 Venice Biennale, it is Curiger’s role to provide a theme for the festival and curate the International Art Exhibition. Among the 83 artists chosen by Bice Curiger for the exhibition are Maurizio Cattelan, Martin Creed, Trisha Donnelly, Urs Fischer, Fischli & Weiss, Klara Lidén, Christian Marclay, Philippe Parreno, Sigmar Polke, Pipilotti Rist, Cindy Sherman, and James Turrell. Of these 83 artists 32 are born after 1975, and 32 are women.
Of the appointment, Biennale President Paolo Baratta stated, “Bice Curiger can boast great experience in research into contemporary art, in its criticism and exhibition, and has matured a profound knowledge and esteem of the world of artists. These characteristics ensure that among the themes of the next Biennale there can be one – particularly important today – dedicated to the quality and intensification of the relationship between artists, works of contemporary art and today’s public”. Previous directors have included Francesco Bonami (2003), Maria de Corral and Rosa Martinez (2005), Robert Storr (2007) and Daniel Birnbaum (2009).
This year’s theme is ILLUMInations, which is loosely inspired by French philosopher Nicolas Bourriaud‘s 2009 book The Radicant as well as the works of famed 16th century Venetian painter Tintoretto (1518 – 1594). By linking the Italian master with contemporary art, Curiger hopes to draw attention to the local surroundings, and in so doing, to place emphasis on national identities, a theme Bourriaud also picks up in his book.
Tintoretto’s given name is Jacopo Comin, but he was also known as Jacopo Robusti. He obtained a later nickname, Il Furioso (The Furious), for his phenomenal energy. Three paintings by the master will be exhibited at the Central Pavilion in the Giardini: The Last Supper (1592-94, lent by the Basilica di San Giorgio Maggiore), The Stealing of the Dead Body of St. Mark (1562-66), and The Creation of the Animals (1551-52), both lent from the Galleria dell’Accademia.
Of the inclusion, Bice Curiger stated, “These paintings by Tintoretto, one of the most experimental artists in the history of Italian art, exert a special appeal today with their almost febrile, ecstatic lighting and a near reckless approach to composition that overturns the well-defined, classical order of the Renaissance. The works will play a prominent role in establishing an artistic, historical and emotional relationship to the local context.” Paolo Baratta adds, “His works will be there as a warning to living artists to not indulge in conventions!”
La Basilica di San Giorgio Maggiore, which will host Anish Kapoor’s Ascension. Image courtesy Travelpod.
In catalog that accompanies the exhibition, Curiger raises the following questions: Is the art community a nation? How many nations are inside you? Where do you feel at home? Which language will the future speak? If art were a state, what would the constitution say? These prompts are answered by artists across the bottom of each page.
In addition to choosing a theme and curating the International Art Exhibition, Curiger must also appoint the International Jury of the 54th International Art Exhibition. They will award three official prizes: the Golden Lion for the best National Participation, the Golden Lion for the best artist at the ILLUMInations Exhibition, and the Silver Lion for a promising young artist at the ILLUMInations Exhibition, all to be announced June 4th at noon in the Giardini. The jury members are: visual artist and musician Hassan Khan (Egypt); independent curator and art critic Carol Yinghua Lu (China); director of the Museion Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art in Bolzano, Letizia Ragaglia (Italy); writer, critic, and Centre Pompidou curator Christine Macel (France); and filmmaker John Waters (USA).
Each year at the Biennale, two Golden Lions for Lifetime Achievement are offered to artists of the director’s appointment. This year’s recipients, chosen by Bice Curiger, are Sturtevant and Franz West.
Sturtevant’s “Infinite Exhaustion” (2007), part of The Razzle Dazzle of Thinking at the Musée d’Art Moderne de la ville de Paris. Image courtesy Slash.
Born 1930 in Lakewood, Ohio, USA, Sturtevant’s artistic career is built on the “shadowing” or appropriation of the work of seminal artists such as Marcel Duchamp, Frank Stella, Andy Warhol, Joseph Beuys, and more recently Felix Gonzalez-Torres, and Paul McCarthy. These appropriations raised questions of originality and authorship long before they became standard practice; it is only since the 1980s that Sturtevant has gained recognition, most recently at the Musée d’Art Moderne in Paris in 2010 in an exhibition entitled “The Razzle Dazzle of Thinking.”
Franz West. Photo by Markus Rössle, courtesy Artinfo.
Franz West was born in Vienna in 1947, where he is currently based. He works with collage and installation, but his great innovation is in sculpture relating to discourses around the body, psychoanalysis, and the grotesque. He enjoyed recent recognition in 2010 with a travelling exhibition at the Museum Ludwig in Köln, the MADRE Museo d’Arte Contemporanea in Naples, Italy and at the Kunsthaus Graz.
Previous winners of the Golden Lions for Lifetime Achievement include Yoko Ono and John Baldessari (2009, chosen by Daniel Birnbaum); Malick Sidibé (2007, chosen by Robert Storr); Barbara Kruger (2005, chosen by Maria de Corral and Rosa Martinez); Michelangelo Pistoletto and Carol Rama (2003, chosen by Francesco Bonami).
Another of Bice Curiger’s initiatives was the creation of four para-pavillions, a sort of “alternative approach where you can ask artists [...] whether they would like to create sculptures that could host other artists’ works.” These four pavilions will be hosted by Franz West, Oscar Tuazon, Monika Sosnowska, and Song Dong. The parapavilions are about the negotiation between artists without the curator as mediator.
Some of the artists representing their nations are: Marina Abramovic for Montenegro; Yael Bartana for Poland; Judith Butler, T.J. Clark, and Saskia Sassen for Norway; Thomas Hirschhorn for Switzerland; Mike Nelson for the UK; and Allora and Calzadilla for the US.
American artists Allora and Calzadilla, present “Track and Field” in front of the U.S. Pavilion. Image courtesy the New York Times.
American artist duo Jennifer Allora and Guillermo Calzadilla, who are to represent the United States at the 2011 Venice Biennial. Photo by Marion Vogel, courtesy Artinfo.
Representing the French Pavilion will be Christian Boltanskii. The project, “Chance” is curated by honorary director of the Centre Pompidou, Jean-Hubert Martin. It deals with themes of luck and fate, but instead Boltanski for which he has created a special website for the project that includes a game in which one can try his or her luck to win a gift from the artist.
Christian Boltanski Takes a “Chance” With a Somber Amusement Park Ride for France’s Venice Biennale Pavilion [Artinfo]
Alongside Andrea Thal, Thomas Hirschhorn will be representing Switzerland. Hirschhorn has also created a special website for the project, which provides insight into his working process: Crystals of Resistance.
For the first time a non-Polish national has represented the country in the Venice Biennale, Poland has chosen Israeli-born artist Yael Bartana, who will present “… and Europe will be stunned.” The project is a video installation that addresses the activities of the Jewish Renaissance Movement in Poland (JRMiP). Three films: Mary Koszmary (2007), Mur i wieża (2009) and Zamach (2011) address the Holocaust, lingering anti-Semitism, and the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.
Yael Bartana, Zamach (Assassination). Photo by Marcin Kalinski, courtesy of pavilion website.
The Hungarian Pavilion (Commissioner: Gábor Gulyás, Curator: Miklós Peternák) will feature “Crash – Passive Interview” by artist Hajnal Németh.
The work is an experimental opera reflecting on stories of car accidents in a dialogical form. According to the exhibition’s press release, “the critical moment [is] slowed down by memory and recounted in utmost detail; the drive and the course of events leading up to that moment; as well as the complex relation of man to driving, in view of his inclination to fetishize his technical objects.”
Image by Tihanyi-Bakos Photo Studio, courtesy e-flux.
The German pavilion will present a web project dedicated to the late director and artist Christoph Schlingensief, who passed away last year during the planning phase of his contribution to the Biennial. The pavilion’s curator, Susanne Gaensheimer, has organized a virtual online “scavenger hunt” to rouse interest in Schlingensief and his work. Read more at the Pavilion Website.
Christoph Schlingensief, United Trash, 1995/96. Image courtesy Filmgarie 451.
Schlingensief’s work goes virtual in preparation for Venice [Artforum]
Another project that picks up on the idea of national identity is Paradiso di Navin, a site-responsive exhibition from artist Navin Rawanchaikul. According to the exhibition’s press release, “Navinland is a multifaceted situational environment that challenges perceptions of identity and nationhood, through the trajectory of a borderless community.”
Navin Rawanchaikul, “Navinland Needs You,” 2011. Image copyright Navin Production Co., Ltd., courtesy of Gallery Niklas Belenius and Tang Contemporary Art.
Karla Black, who was shortlisted for the 2011 Turner Prize, will represent Scotland. Black’s fragile sculptures draw attention to materiality and create a world of their own. Her color palette is soft, all pastels, and are viewable at Palazzo Pizani. Read more at the pavilion’s website, Scotland in Venice.
Egypt will honor multimedia artist Ahmed Basiouny, who was killed in Tahrir Square in January. Basiouny (1978-2011) will be remembered in a posthumous solo exhibition entitled “30 Days of Running in the Place.”
Ahmed Basiouny, image courtesy Daily News Egypt.
Representing Sweden in the Biennale are Whiney Biennial alum Fia Backström and relative newcomer Andreas Eriksson. Backström’s contribution goes back the idea of national identity and investigating the history of the Biennale’s structure. Her series of sculptures will be places around various national pavilions in the Giardini. Eriksson, on the other hand, represents a more traditional set of sculptures about birds and nests, with haunting and ephemeral “shadow paintings.”
Curator Magnus af Petersens peeks at the paintings by Andreas Eriksson in the Nordic pavilion. Image courtesy Moderna Museet.
Russia’s exhibition, “Empty Zones” is curated by philosopher/critic Boris Groys. A collaboration from Collective Actions, headed by Andrei Monastyrsky, has reportedly thumbed its nose at Russia’s ruling powers since its formation in 1976. Spatiotemporal performative actions in rural settings are a large part of the collective’s work.
Image courtesy e-flux.
Dublin-born artist Corban Walker will represent Ireland. The commissioner of the pavilion is Emily-Jane Kirwan, a director at the Pace Gallery. Walker is known for his large-scale sculptures and architecturally-based installations consisting of sheets of glass that relate to perceptions of space and scale.
The Belgian Pavilion will be a collaboration between artists Angel Vergara and Luc Tuymans, the latter of whom will act as curator. Entitled “Feuilleton,” the project features videos and paintings on glass and is inspired by the seven deadly sins.
Exhibiting the first time since 1976, Iraq will present six artists dealing with the theme of water. Entitled “Acqua Ferita” (or, Wounded Water), the exhibition draws attention not only to its immediate surroundings, but also to the plight in Iraq, where the lack of water is a source of emergency. Included in the exhibition will be a documentary by Oday Rasheed, and a panel discussion called “A Fluid Resilience” will be hosted at the Fondazione Quirini-Stampalia on June 4th at 11 am.
Image courtesy e-flux.
Iraq Comes to Venice [WSJ]
India will have a pavilion at the Biennale for the first time. Instead of enlisting art world heavyweights such as Subodh Gupta, Atul Dodiya or Jitish Kallat, curator Ranjit Hoskote has decided to tap lesser known artists. The roster includes printmaker and sculptor Zarina Hashm, painter and video artist Gigi Scaria, mixed-media artist Praneet Soi, and a husband-and-wife team called The Desire Machine Collective. Playing off the buzz on India’s art market, the pavilion’s theme is “Everyone Agrees: It’s About to Explode.”
India Heads to the Venice Biennale [WSJ]
“The Taiwan Pavilion, at the Palazzo delle Prigioni, will host a two-part exhibition, The Heard and the Unheard – Soundscape Taiwan, curated by Amy Cheng. The Heard and the Unheard explores Taiwan’s social soundscape. “Sound,” as protagonist of the exhibition, appears both in its role as a medium and as a metaphorical site for political actions. By adopting sound as both substance and aesthetic form, the exhibition explores the non-mainstream cultural context of contemporary Taiwanese society through the work of two artists and the inclusion of the Sound Library/Bar.”
Hong-Kai Wang, “Music While We Work,” 2011. Audio and video installation. Photo by You-Wei Chen, courtesy e-flux.
Representing Turkey with a sculptural installation entitled “Plan B” is Ayşe Erkmen. According to the exhibition statement, the installation “draws on the ineluctable and complex relationship Venice has with water.” A room is transformed into a water purification unit that provides clean, drinkable water back to the canal.
Ayşe Erkmen, Plan B. Image courtesy the exhibition website.
Tim Davies is chosen to represent Wales.
Tim Davies to Represent Wales at Venice Biennale [Artforum]
Mike Nelson, who has twice been short-listed for the Turner Prize, has been chosen to represent the UK at the Biennale. He is known for site-specific large scale installations.
Mike Nelson in Sydenham Hill, South London, 2011. Photograph by Thierry Bal, courtesy of Artinfo.
Chosen to represent Australia is sculptor Hany Armanious. Based in the process of casting, Armanious will present eleven works that reflect the process of casting found objects. These resin objects act as simulacra, causing viewers to do a double take and wonder what is real and what is fake.
The Ukranian Pavilion will feature 12,800 handpainted wooden eggs by Oksana Mas, harking back to a Ukranian folk custom of decorating for Easter.
The Venice Pavilion (Commissioner: Madile Gambier, Curator: Renzo Dubbini) will feature Italian video artist Fabrizio Plessi, who will present MARIVERTICALI (translation: “vertical seas”), a work executed for Louis Vuitton. According to the exhibition’s press release, Plessi (b. 1940) will fill the pavilion with “a grandiose concert of waters in continuous movement and transformation: six black steel vessels emerge from the darkness, while sounds, currents and waves from symbolic seas appear on the video screens on their hulls.”
There are 37 official collateral events that run alongside those inside the Giardini and the Arsenale. Organized by international institutions, the full list of Collateral Events offers a wide range of participations.
One of the biggest collateral events will be “Venice in Venice: Glow & Reflection – Venice California Art from 1960 to the Present. Organized by Foundation 20 21, Venice in Venice will take place June 1st – July 31st at Palazzo Contarini Dagli Scrigni. Curated by Tim Nye and Jaqueline Miro, the exhibition and events include works by seminal Southern California artists Peter Alexander, John Altoon, Charles Arnoldi, Billy Al Bengston, Larry Bell, Tony Berlant, Wallace Berman, Vija Celmins, Bruce Conner, Ron Cooper, Mary Corse, Laddie John Dill, Joe Goode, Robert Graham, George Herms, Robert Irwin, Craig Kauffman, John McCracken, Ed Moses, Kenneth Price, Ed Ruscha, and James Turrell.
The exhibition is held in celebration of “Pacific Standard Time: Art in L.A. 1945-1980,” an initiative of the Getty Foundation. It entails a collaboration of more than sixty cultural institutions across Southern California, coming together for six months beginning in October 2011 to tell the story of the birth of the Los Angeles art scene and how it became a major new force in the art world. Alongside $10 million in grants from the Getty Foundation, the presenting sponsor is Bank of America. A symposium and guided tour will be held at 2pm on June 2nd. For more information visit the exhibition website.
Another collateral event that promises to pull visitors is Pirate Camp. Housed on the island of Certosa, Pirate Camp is a travelling residence for camping artists. Curated by Brice Coniglio, the project is a metaphorical representation of contemporary artists as nomadic pirates, docking in various nations and appropriating from these varying cultures. “The Stateless Pavilion,” as it is sometimes known, hosts 16 young international artists chosen through an online competition, by a special jury of artists from Italy’s seven leading artist-run spaces. For more information visit the exhibition website.
Pirate Camp from previous years, image courtesy Equilibriarte.
In the Basilica di San Giorgio Maggiore, Anish Kapoor will present Ascension, opening to the public June 1st. Backed by Galleria Continua (in collaboration with Fondazione Giorgio Cini and illycaffe), the project is curated by Lorenzo Fiaschi. In the site-specific installation, a column of white smoke rises from a circular base at the intersection between the transept and the nave of the basilica, making the immaterial tangible.
Rebel is a site-specific installation by James Franco on the island of Certosa. Curated by Dominic Sidhu, MOCA has teamed up with the duo as a partnering organization, serving mainly as a promotional partner. Paul McCarthy and Ed Ruscha are also involved in the production.
James Franco and Ed Ruscha – Image courtesy the LA Times.
Richard Phillips has created a film starring Lindsay Lohan, which was shot last month in Malibu by surf-king filmmaker Taylor Steele. It is the first film Phillips imagery references Ingmar Bergman’s classic 1966 film Persona and Jean-Luc Godard’s 1963 film Contempt, dwelling on the theme of what is real and what is fake. It will be featured in “Commercial Break” (more information below.)
Artifacts: Lindsey Lohan, Art Star [NYT - T Magazine]
Lindsay Lohan by Richard Phillips
“Commercial Break,” a project by the Garage Center for Contemporary Culture. The Garage Center for Contemporary Culture is a new art space run by Dasha Zhukova, girlfriend of Russian oligarch Roman Abramovich. She has recruited over 60 artists to create fake 15-second ads; among the artists chosen for the venture are Barbara Kruger, Urs Fischer, and John Baldessari. The 80 videos included in “Commercial Break” will be played on a barge-mounted Jumbotron that will float on the Grand Canal. In a city in which no advertising is traditionally displayed, it is sure to make an impression.
The project’s curator, Neville Wakefield is a writer on contemporary art, culture and photography. Author of ‘Postmodernism: the Twilight of the Real’ (1990), Wakefield has contributed to numerous magazines Artforum, Art + Auction, Art in America, I-D, Interview, The New York Sunday Times, American, British and Italian Vogue, High Times, ACNE Paper and the Journal and many others. As well as contributing to monographs on many significant artists including Matthew Barney, Dan Colen, Vija Celmins, Daido Moriyama, Richard Prince, Ed Ruscha and Rachel Whiteread, Wakefield co-edited the highly influential ‘Fashion: Photography of the Nineties’ (1996), was creative director of Tar Magazine and continues to work as creative director for Adam Kimmel Projects and creative consultant for Calvin Klein. In 2005 he co-founded ‘Destricted’, an ongoing series of pornographic films by artists such as Marina Abramovic, Larry Clark, Gaspar Noe which shook critics at Edinburgh, Lorcarno, Sundance and Cannes. Since then he has also served as Senior Curatorial Advisor for PS1 MoMA and Curator of Frieze Projects at the Frieze Art Fair. Recent shows include Greater New York (PS1 2010), ‘Matthew Barney: Prayer Sheet with Wound and Nail’ (Schaulager 2010) and the upcoming ‘Jack Smith: Thanks for Explaining Me,’ at Barbara Gladstone.
Dasha Zhukova. Image courtesy shiny little things.
Taiwanese artist Hsieh Chun-Te presents “The Feast of Chun-Te.” Curated by Dominique Païni and Lin Chi-Ming and organised by the Museum of Contemporary Art of Taipei (MoCA, Taipei), the exhibition is composed of three parts: an installation, a series of photographs from 1987-2011 entitled “Raw,” and a culinary performance taking place twice daily at the Cooking Theater at Scoletta dei Battioro e Tiraoro Campo S. Stae 1980, June 1st through 4th.
Hsieh Chun-Te, Raw – Electrical Parade. Image courtesy Heymann Renoult.
China’s so-called first performance artist, Kwok Mang-Ho, aka “The Frog King,” will present Frogtopia. It is curated by Benny Chia, Tsang Tak-Ping and Wong Shun-Kit and is realized in association with the Hong Kong Fringe Club. Mang-Ho’s practice centers on concepts of “time as art” and “art as play,” and heavily involved audience participation. It is the artist’s belief that through various media he has discovered a new dimension – “The Yum Dimension” – in which art can be created. The project takes place across the main entrance of the Arsenale, and will run the length of the Biennale, with a preview June 1st through 3rd. For more information visit the exhibition website.
Screenshot from Frogtopia exhibition website.
Portraits and Masterpieces is a solo show of American artist Barry X Ball (b. 1955 in Pasadena, CA). Curated by Dr. Laura Mattioli the exhibition finds its home at Ca’ Rezzonico. With a basis in art history, Ball’s sculptural work reinvigorates tradition of figurative stone sculpture. To create the 24 sculptures shown here, Ball uses a variety of contemporary techniques, “from 3-dimensional scanning, virtual modeling, and computer-controlled milling to hyper detailed hand carving and polishing.” It is viewable at Ca’ Rezzonico, the Museum of 18th Century Venice.
Barry X Ball, “Envy,” 2008–2010. Sala del Trono, Ca’ Rezzonico. Photo courtesy Francesco Allegretto.
Passage2011 is an “actionistic transalpine drama” by artists GÆG (Global Aesthetics Genetics) Wolfgang Aichner and Thomas Huber. The project is curated by Christopher Schoen, who was commisioner of the 2007 and 2009 Icelandic pavilion, the latter of which featured Ragnar Kjartansson. It entails a four to five-week expedition of mountaineers traversing the Alps on foot. The project’s apparent aim is to transport “an ambiguous art-object cum functional boat” to Venice and launch the boat into the lagoon in time for the Biennale – “to eventually celebrate the victory of art over nature in a triumphal journey up the Canale Grande or to fail dramatically.” The work refers to Werner Herzog’s 1982 film Fitzcarraldo. For more information visit the exhibition website.
The Passage, image courtesyGÆG.
Iphone / Ipad Application
For easier navigation through the festival, there are two applications to download for iPhone and iPad – iBiennale. One is developed by the fair’s creators, the other by Christie’s: both contain information and official catalogues of the exhibitions, and are available (for free) through the AppStore. Read more at Art Daily or the LA Times.
The 54th Venice Biennale received sponsorship by Swatch, Enel, Illy, Foscarini, Hellovenezia, Golden Goose Deluxe Brand clothing, Consorzio Venezia Nuova, and the Poste Italiane. Italian companies Volume and Micromegas will act as media partners.
– Preview article researched, written, and compiled by Art Observed’s Jen Lindblad.
Related News Links
2011 Official Site [Biennale di Venezia]
The 2011 Venice Biennale Gets a Name, and a Post-National Theme [Artinfo]
Venice Biennale Releases Artist List for 2011 “ILLUMInations” Exhibition [Artinfo]
Bice Curiger Appointed Curator of 2011 Venice Biennale [Artforum]
A Comprehensive Guide to National Pavilions [Artinfo]
Light Impressions: Michelle Kuo Talks with Bice Curiger about the upcoming 54th Venice Biennale [Artforum]
“I Don’t Care If I’m Criticized”: A Q&A With 2011 Venice Biennale Curator Bice Curiger [Artinfo]
Franz West and Sturtevant Win Venice Biennale’s Golden Lions for Lifetime Achievement [Artinfo]
China Dedicates Venice Biennale Pavilion to a Celebration of Its National Scents [Artinfo]
The United States Picks Allora & Calzadilla for the 54th Venice Biennale [Artinfo]
Allora & Calzadilla to Represent US at 2011 Venice Biennale [Artforum]
Allora and Calzadilla to Partner With USA Gymnastics and USA Track and Field for Venice Biennale [Artforum]
Echoes of Political Unrest at Venice Biennale [NYT]
Collecting special: Poised for success [Financial Times]
The Art World’s Olympics [WSJ]
New national pavilions planned for Arsenale: Former barracks set for restoration [The Art Newspaper]
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